一周热闻|特朗普拜登隔空对战、iPhone 12发布、泰国爆发示威活动……

英语世界 2020-10-19 00:32


1

US auction theory pioneers won the Nobel economics prize 
美国拍卖理论先驱获诺贝尔经济学奖

US academics Paul Milgrom and Robert Wilson won the 2020 Nobel Economics last Monday for their work on auctions hailed as benefiting buyers and sellers around the world of everything from fishing quotas① to aircraft landing slots②. Among the insights of the two Stanford University economists is an explanation of how bidders seek to avoid the so-called “winner’s curse” of over-paying and what happens when bidders gain a better understanding of their rivals’ sense of value. Milgrom and Wilson notably came up with formats for selling interrelated items simultaneously. In 1994, US authorities used one of their auction designs to sell radio frequencies to telecom operators. (Reuters) 

10月12日,美国学者保罗•米尔格罗姆和罗伯特•威尔逊因对拍卖的研究获颁2020年诺贝尔经济学奖,他们的研究被认为令全世界从事任何交易的买家和卖家受益,比如捕捞配额、飞机降落空位等。这两位经济学家来自斯坦福大学。他们的洞察解释了投标者如何试图避免出价过高,即所谓的“赢者诅咒”,还解释了当投标者更好地了解对手对标的价值的判断时会发生什么情况。值得注意的是,米尔格罗姆和威尔逊还提出了关联标的物同步拍卖的几种形式。1994年,美国政府曾利用他们发明的一种拍卖方式向电信运营商出售无线电频率。


【注释】

① quota: [ˈkwəʊtə] n. a limited number or amount of people or things that is officially allowed(分)配额 

② slot: [slɒt] n. a position, a time or an opportunity for sb./sth., for example in a list, a programme of events or a series of broadcasts(列表、名单、程序中的)位置,职位;(广播节目等的)一档



2

Apple unveiled the new 5G iPhone 12 line 
苹果发布iPhone 12系列新5G手机

Apple last Tuesday has unveiled its iPhone 12 line of smartphones in a range of sizes with new designs and 5G connectivity. The four new devices take a design cue① from the iPhones 4 and 5 from 2013 and the newer iPad Pro and Air lines, with squarer metal sides and flatter profiles. All of the new iPhones also have Apple’s latest A14 Bionic processor, which recently debuted② with the revamped③ iPad Air announced in September. They also all have Apple’s Face ID recognition system for unlocking the smartphones and will support 5G for the first time. None of the new iPhones will ship with headphones or a power adapter, as a way of reducing the carbon footprint but will contain a USB-C to Lightning cable in the box and will support faster wireless charging. (The Guardian
10月13日,苹果发布iPhone 12系列智能手机。该系列拥有多种尺寸,采用了全新设计,并支持5G网络。四款新手机的设计灵感来自于2013年的iPhone 4和iPhone 5及后来推出的新版iPad Pro和iPad Air系列,新手机采用金属直角边框,外形更扁平。新款iPhone都配备了苹果最新的A14仿生处理器,在9月发布的新一代iPad Air中,该处理器首次亮相。iPhone 12系列还都配备了苹果面部识别系统以解锁手机,同时将首次支持5G。为了减少碳足迹,新款iPhone不会附带耳机和电源适配器,但会附赠USB-C转闪电连接线,并支持更快的无线充电。


【注释】

① take a cue from sb./sth.: to copy what sb. else does as an example of how to behave or what to do 学……的样,模仿……的样子做 

② debut: [ˈdeɪbjuː] vi. (of a performer or show) to make a first public appearance 首次亮相 

③ revamp: [ˌriːˈvæmp] vt. to make changes to the form of (sth.) usually to improve its appearance 改进……的外观,升级


【相关阅读】

iPhone 12来了,值不值得买?



3

Kyrgyzstan’s president resigned amid political unrest 
吉尔吉斯斯坦总统在政治动乱中辞职

Kyrgyzstan President Sooronbai Jeenbekov announced his resignation last Thursday in a bid to end the turmoil that has engulfed① the Central Asian nation after a disputed parliamentary election. Jeenbekov, who has faced calls to step down from protesters and political opponents, said in a statement released by his office that holding onto power wasn’t “worth the integrity of our country and harmony in society.” Kyrgyzstan was plunged② into chaos following an Oct. 4 vote that election officials say was swept③ by pro-government parties. The opposition said the election was tainted④ by vote-buying and other irregularities⑤. Protesters then took over government buildings, looting⑥ some offices, and the Central Election Commission nullified⑦ the election. Last Tuesday, Jeenbekov introduced a state of emergency in the capital, Bishkek. In an effort to stem the unrest, Jeenbekov endorsed the appointment of Sadyr Zhaparov, a former lawmaker who was just freed from jail by demonstrators, as the country’s new prime minister and Zhaparov’s new Cabinet. (AP) 
10月15日,吉尔吉斯斯坦总统索隆拜·热恩别科夫宣布辞职。在一场有争议的议会选举后,这个中亚国家陷入动乱,总统辞职以求结束危机。面对抗议者和政敌要求下台的呼声,热恩别科夫在总统办公室发布的一份声明中表示,如果继续执政会“破坏国家完整和社会和谐,那就应该卸任”。10月4日的投票后,吉尔吉斯斯坦陷入混乱。选举官员称,亲政府党派在这次投票中大获全胜。反对派则称,选举存在买票等违规行为。随后,抗议者占领政府大楼,洗劫了一些办公室。中央选举委员会随即宣布选举无效。10月13日,热恩别科夫宣布,首都比什凯克进入紧急状态。为了平息动乱,热恩别科夫批准萨德尔·扎帕罗夫出任新总理,并批准了扎帕罗夫的新内阁。扎帕罗夫曾担任议员,刚刚被示威者从监狱中释放。

【注释】
① engulf: [ɪnˈɡʌlf] vt. to affect (sb./sth.) very strongly 强烈影响,使陷入
② plunge: [plʌndʒ] vt. to cause (sb./sth.) to enter or force (sb./sth.) into some state or course of action usually suddenly, unexpectedly, or violently and against opposition 使突然陷入,使意外遭受 
③ sweep: [swiːp] vt. to win an overwhelming victory in 在……中一举获胜 
④ taint: [teɪnt] vt. to damage or harm the quality of (sth.) or the opinion that people have of (sb./sth.) 玷污,败坏,使受不良影响 
⑤ irregularity: [ɪˌreɡjəˈlærəti] n. sth. that is irregular, esp. lack of proper and honest conduct 不规则的事物;不正当的行为「常用复数」 
⑥ loot: [luːt] vt. to steal (things) from shops or buildings after a riot, fire, etc. 抢劫,洗劫 
⑦ nullify: [ˈnʌlɪfaɪ] vt. to make (sth. such as an agreement or order) lose its legal force 使失效,使不具法律效力


4

Thailand declared a state of emergency 
泰国宣布进入紧急状态

Thailand’s government last Thursday has declared a “state of extreme emergency” in the capital, Bangkok, after an extraordinary day of anti-government protests that saw demonstrators blocking and heckling① a royal motorcade② in defiance of strict laws forbidding any criticism of the monarchy. The government’s pre-dawn emergency decree was followed swiftly by police in riot③gear④ who moved in to break up⑤ protests and arrest student leaders around the office of Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha, a former army general who seized power in a 2014 coup⑥. The protesters are calling for Prayuth to step down and for constitutional reforms, including new curbs on the power of the monarchy. The declaration also bans gatherings of more than five people and the publication of news or messages online that could “harm national security.” (NPR)
10月15日,泰国政府宣布,首都曼谷进入“极端紧急状态”。此前一天,泰国反政府抗议活动异常激烈:泰国法律严格禁止批评王室,示威者却公然违抗,围堵王室车队,大吼大叫。政府在黎明前发布紧急状态令后,防暴警察迅速出动,驱散聚集在总理巴育办公室外的抗议者,并逮捕学生领袖。巴育曾是一名将军,在2014年的政变中夺取政权。抗议者要求巴育下台,还要求泰国进行宪政改革,包括增加对君主权力的限制。紧急状态令还禁止五人以上的集会,禁止在网上发布可能“危害国家安全”的新闻或信息。

【注释】

① heckle: [ˈhekl] vt. to harass 骚扰 

② motorcade: [ˈməʊtəkeɪd] n. a line of vehicles including one or more that famous or important people are travelling in(尤指护送重要人物的)车队

③ riot: [ˈraɪət] n. a situation in which a group of people behave in a violent way in a public place, often as a protest 暴乱 

④ gear: [ɡɪə(r)] n. the equipment or clothing needed for a particular activity(用于特定活动的)用具、服装 

⑤ break up: to stop (sth., such as a fight) 停止 

⑥ coup: [kuː] n. a sudden change of government that is illegal and often violent 政变



5

Trump and Biden town halls① 
特朗普和拜登的市政厅会议

US President Donald Trump and Democrat Joe Biden squared off② last Thursday night in dueling③ televised town halls that replaced their second presidential debate. The Commission on Presidential Debates had arranged for the second debate to be virtual after Trump tested positive for coronavirus, but Trump refused. In his town hall, Trump was defensive about his administration’s handling of the coronavirus and evasive when pressed④ about whether he took a required COVID-19 test before the first debate. Trump refused to denounce the far-right, white supremacist QAnon conspiracy group. Meanwhile, Biden denounced the White House’s handling of the virus, declaring that it was at fault for closing a pandemic response office established by the Obama administration in which he served. He suggested he will offer clarity on his position on expanding the Supreme Court if Trump’s nominee to the bench⑤, Amy Coney Barrett, is seated⑥ before Election Day. The confirmation hearing for Barrett lasted for three days while the Senate Judiciary Committee set Oct. 22 for its vote to recommend⑦ Barrett’s nomination to the full Senate, with a final confirmation vote expected by month’s end. (AP and Politico) 
10月15日晚,美国总统唐纳德·特朗普和民主党人乔·拜登分别出席市政厅会议。二人隔空较量,全程电视直播。各自举行的市政厅会议代替了他们的第二次总统候选人辩论。此前,特朗普新冠病毒检测呈阳性,总统辩论委员会遂将第二场辩论改在线上举行,但遭到特朗普拒绝。在他的市政厅会议上,特朗普就政府对新冠疫情的处理方式进行了辩护。在被追问是否在首场辩论前做过必要的新冠检测时,特朗普选择了回避。他还拒绝谴责极右翼白人至上主义QAnon阴谋论团体。与此同时,拜登谴责了政府对疫情的处理方式。他表示,解散大流行病应对办公室是错误的。该办公室由奥巴马政府设立,拜登曾在其中任职。他还暗示,如果特朗普提名的艾米·康尼·巴雷特在大选日之前就任最高法院大法官,他将就扩大最高法院大法官人数的问题表明自己的立场。巴雷特的确认听证会持续了三天。10月22日,参议院司法委员会将就巴雷特的提名进行投票,决定是否提交参议院全体投票,最终的确认投票预计将在月底进行。

【注释】

① town hall: a public meeting at which a politician or official speaks about his or her policies and answers questions from members of the public 市政厅会议「一作:~ meeting」 

② square off: if two people, groups, or organizations square off, they start to compete or argue with each other(打斗时)摆好架势,准备打架;开始竞争

③ duel: [ˈdjuːəl] vi. to fight a combat between two persons 决斗 

④ press: [pres] vt. to attack forcefully 猛烈抨击;施压 

⑤ bench: [bentʃ] n. the office of a judge 法官的职位 

⑥ seat: [siːt] vt. to establish (a person) in a position of authority 使就职 

⑦ recommend: [ˌrekəˈmend] vt. to present with approval 递交……以表示支持



(复旦大学江默柔编译,复旦大学章逍然、重光会王暖流审订)


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