一面华盛顿,一面黄柳霜!好莱坞首位华裔女星被印上美国硬币

CHINADAILY 2022-09-23 18:30

还记得这位大气自信向西方介绍旗袍的华人女性吗?她是首位好莱坞华裔女星黄柳霜。



10月25日,美国造币厂将发行印有华裔女星黄柳霜(Anna May Wong)头像的25美分硬币。她是被追授该荣誉的五位女性之一,也将成为被刻上美国硬币的首位华人女性。

Bags and rolls of circulation quality 2022 American Women, Anna May Wong quarter dollars will be offered to the public at numismatic premiums above face value on Oct 25 by the United States Mint.

circulation: 发行

图源:Incluvie



美国女性铸币项目


“美国女性铸币项目”是从2022年至2025年发行的一套25美分的硬币系列,每年设计五款硬币,纪念那些对美国发展做出巨大贡献的女性。

The American Women Quarters Program is a four-year program that celebrates the accomplishments and contributions made by women to the development and history of the US. Beginning in 2022, and continuing through 2025, the US Mint will issue up to five new reverse designs each year.


该系列硬币的正面为美国国父兼第一任总统乔治·华盛顿的头像,硬币背面是一名杰出美国女性。被表彰的女性需在选举权、民权、废奴、政府、人文、科学、太空、艺术等领域中对美国作出卓越贡献,并来自不同的种族和地域背景。

图源:United States Mint




黄柳霜与好莱坞


1905年1月3日,黄柳霜出生在洛杉矶唐人街一户开洗衣店的贫穷家庭。她从小就对电影很感兴趣,甚至会攒钱逃课溜进片场观摩。年仅9岁的她开始向制片人投递简历,11岁那年,她给自己取了艺名:Anna May Wong。

Anna May Wong was born Wong Liu-Tsong in 1905 in Los Angeles to second-generation Chinese-American parents. Wong always had an obsession with movies and often spent her time and money as a child seeing films in nickelodeon theatres. As early as the age of nine Wong began asking filmmakers for roles, and by age 11 she had come up with her stage name: Anna May Wong.


此后,黄柳霜成为好莱坞第一位华裔电影明星,主演过几十部电影,包括1932年的《上海快车》、1921年的《人生》和1922年的《海逝》。其中,《海逝》是最早的彩色电影之一。

Anna May Wong is considered by many to be the first Chinese-American Hollywood movie star. She starred in dozens of productions, with some of the more famous ones being Shanghai Express (1932), Bits of Life (1921), and The Toll of the Sea (1922), which was one of the very first films made in color.


此外,她也是异国时尚界的宠儿,深受伦敦、柏林等地上流社会的追捧。1934年,黄柳霜被纽约模特组织 Mayfair Mannequin Society 誉为“全球衣品最佳女性”。1938年,美国《展望》杂志称其为“全球最美华裔女孩”。

She was a figure of exotic fashion around the world, feted by high society in London, Berlin and elsewhere. In 1934, the Mayfair Mannequin Society of New York voted her the "world's best dressed woman"; in 1938 Look magazine named her the "world's most beautiful Chinese girl." 



黄柳霜与反种族主义


放眼40年的职业生涯,黄柳霜始终在与好莱坞的种族主义作斗争。有限的主角、刻板的选角,以及她与白人演员之间巨大的片酬差距,都体现出当时影视行业的不平等。

Hollywood’s racism continued to dominate Wong’s entire career, casting her as “exotic atmosphere” rather than utilizing her talent and skill.



在电影《海逝》中,黄柳霜饰演的角色名叫莲花(Lotus Flower),爱上了一个美国男人,却被他抛弃,最终含恨自戕。“莲花”因而代指一种刻板印象:亚洲女性恋爱时常常遭遇始乱终弃。而另一个刻板印象,“龙女(the dragon lady)”,也源于黄柳霜最著名的角色之一,出自1931年的《龙的女儿》,往往象征着野蛮而邪恶的引诱者。

In The Toll of the Sea, she played a character named Lotus Flower who falls in love with an American man only to be abandoned by him. At the end of the film, Lotus Flower takes her own life. The term "lotus flower" would go on to represent the stereotype of a disposable female Asian love interest. Another stereotype, "the dragon lady," the kind of very barbarous and villainous kind of seductress, also stemmed from one of Wong's most prominent roles, 1931's Daughter of the Dragon.


黄柳霜直言不讳地表达了她对好莱坞的不满,也一直在努力突破限制。她在接受《电影周刊》采访时表示,“我厌倦了那些千篇一律的角色。为什么银幕上的华人几乎总是反派,而且是如此残忍的反派——滥杀无辜、背信弃义、阴险狡诈,我们不是那样的人。”

Wong was also vocal about her frustrations with Hollywood, and she worked against the limitations. "I was so tired of the parts I had to play," she said in an interview with Film Weekly. "Why is it that the screen Chinese is nearly always the villain of the piece, and so cruel a villain — murderous, treacherous, a snake in the grass. We are not like that."



她突破政治、种族和性别的藩篱,在排华风潮及质疑声中成为引人瞩目的国际明星,在群星闪耀的影史黄金时代留下一道别致的东方魅影。上世纪三十年代,她还毅然回到中国,变卖自己的珠宝家当,支持抗战。


黄柳霜去世六十年后,她的遗产仍在影坛与时尚界广为流传:她的标志性造型使20世纪20年代的摩登风格再度流行,而她不忘祖国、反抗种族主义的精神也被世人传诵至今。

编辑:朱迪齐
实习生:王安然
来源:纽约时报 Coin World  United States Mint  Time  Incluvie  KQED

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